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Book 1 Countries

Aden
An important port between India and Europe, as such it was a coaling station for steamships. Administered as part of British colonial India, called Aden Settlement. In 1937 it became the colony of Aden.
Albania
A monarchy from 1914-1925; a republic from 1925 to 1939, and during WWII a colony of Italy.
Algeria
A colony of France, since 1830. 50,000 French citizens from the home country moved to Algeria, mostly for farming. It was administrated as a French territory.
Argentina
Independence from Spain in one form or another with shifting borders began in 1810. Around 1912, modern Argentina emerged.

Austria

It had become a great continental power, by the time the Austrian Empire was created in 1815. Border changes proceeded the next stage of Nationhood, when it became Austrian-Hungarian in the Compromise of 1867. It was an empire of Germans, Poles, Czechs, Rusyns, Serbs, Italians, Romanians, Ukranians, Croats, and Slovaks. In 1919 after being part of the losing powers in WWI; the empire was gone and it became the Austrian Republic; a head without a body. In 1938, the Anschluss incorporated Austria into the “Greater” Germany. No longer an empire or a Nntion, but a Province of Germany.
Australia
In 1788 it was the British Crown Colony of New South Wales. Later it was divided into additional Colonies of South Australia, Victoria, Queensland and Northern Territories.
Barbados
It has been a English and British Colony, since 1627.
Belgium
The Southern Provenances of the Netherlands broke away to become the nation of Belgium in 1830. A King was installed in 1831, which became the official day of Independence; making it a Constitutional Monarchy with a democratic parliament.

 

Belgium Congo
Known as the Congo Free State, it was controlled by King Leopold from 1885 to 1908, as a corporate state. In 1908 it became the Belgium Congo, a colony of Belgium.
Bolivia
Freed from Spanish colonial rule by 1825; Bolivia fought many border wars, where half it's territories were lost to the surrounding countries.
Brazil
Breaking away from Portugal in 1822, Brazil became an independent nation. It was a Monarchy until 1889. During this time period it gained territory from the wars and conflicts with its neighbors. After 1889 it vacillated between a republic and military dictatorship.
British Guana
By 1831 it was a colony of Britain, based on the system of the previous Dutch administration. In 1928 the constitution was changed to a crown colony constitution.

Bulgaria

A Bulgarian Empire existed since the 7th Century. Since, 1393 they were part of the Ottoman Empire. An independent Bulgaria emerged in 1908; Involved in the Balkan conflicts, WWI and WWII.
Burma
From 1886 to 1930 it was ruled by the colonial government of Great Britain. In 1937 its administration became a separate colonial entity.
Bermuda
It was a company colony, Somers Isles Company until 1684; when it became a crown colony of the Great Britain.
Canada
The Canadian Confederation of 1867 initially contained four provenances. During the following years, until 1905 the whole of Canada was united; with the exception of the Dominion of Newfoundland. Great Britain retained control of the foreign affairs of this independent country.
Cape Verde
Portuguese colony since the 15th century; in the central Atlantic.
Ceylon
Ceylon, was a British Crown colony between 1815 and 1948.
Chili
In 1818 Chili became an independent republic. Chili expanded its borders between 1826 an 1891 at the expense of its neighbors.
China
Imperial China suffered a series of territorial losses; 1842 Hong Kong to Britain, treaty ports to foreign powers in 1860, Taiwan to Japan in 1895, and Manchuria to Japan in 1895. Imperial rule ended in 1912, after a reign of over two thousand years. It was now the Republic of China. By 1916, China was a country in turmoil with warlords tearing the country apart. 1937 to 1945 saw the Japanese continuing their military attacks against China.
Columbia
Spanish colonial rule ended in 1822; as the Republic of Columbia. This included Columbia, Venezuela and Ecuador. By 1830 the later two countries became separate nations. Panama was lost in 1903, because of the Panama Canal.
Costa Rica
It was a colony of Spain until 1821. First politically associated with Mexico, then from 1823 to 1839 the Federal Republic of Central America. In 1838 it became an independent nation.
Cuba
A colony of Spain, until the Spanish-American War ceded it to the United States in 1898. It was given independence in 1902, as the Republic of Cuba.
Czechoslovakia
With the collapse of the Austrian-Hungarian empire in 1918, it became an independent nation; consisting of areas of today's Czechs Republic, today's Slovakia and parts of Carpathia. In 1939 Nazi Germany took over the country and divided it into the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia and the and the puppet Slovak State.

 

Dahomey
An African kingdom until 1900, which started to lose control to the French in 1870. At first only the port of Cotonou in 1878 was a French protectorate, by 1894 it was the entire country.
Danzig
A free State from 1807 - 1814. Then it became part of Prussia, until it then attached to the German Empire in 1871. After WWI, it was the Free City of Danzig, under the auspices of the League of Nations. The Nazis attacked Danzig in 1939, which began WWII.
Kingdom of Denmark
In 1849 they became a constitutional monarchy. Norway had been a part of Denmark, until 1814. Denmark was forced to cede Schleswig and Holstein to Prussia in 1864. In 1920, they regained Northern Schleswig in a plebiscite.
Dominican Republic
In 1844, the Domican Republic became an independent nation. It had freed itself from Haitian rule. In past years it had been a colony of Spain and for a short time a colony of Napoleonic France.
Republic of Ecuador
Part of Columbia, Ecuador separated in 1830 to become an independent nation. Until 1944, the borders ebbed and flowed as they fought with their neighbors.
Egypt
Ruled by the Ottoman Turks for over 200 years, Napoleon ended their rule in 1798. Filling a power vacuum, Albanians troops under Viceroy Muhammad Ali gained control of the country. The Ottomans ruled in name only. Egypt's financial debt in regards to the Suez Canal allowed British government to control the country. In 1914, Egypt was officially made a Protectorate of Great Britain. In 1922 Great Britain declared Egypt and independent nation.
Elsalvador
A colony of Spain, it gained its independence in 1821. It joined in a other central American states to be part of Federal Republic of Central America, which ended in 1841. From 1896 to 1898 it was part of Greater Republic of Central America.
England
Henry the VIII broke with the Catholic Church and incorporated Wales into England in 1535. Later in 1707 the political union with Scotland created Great Britain. This ushered in the age of the British Empire; where “the Sun never set.”
Eritrea
A colony of Italy since 1890. In 1936 it became a province of Italian East Africa.
Estonia
Established as a State and freed from Russian rule in 1920. During WWII it was taken by the Soviet Union, then taken by Germany and the retaken by the Soviet Union.
Ethiopia
The current borders of the nation were established from 1889 to 1913. They were invaded and occupied by the Italians from 1936 to 1941.
Fiji
The Cannibal Isles became a British colony in 1874.
Finland
Part of Sweden, until taken over by Russia in 1809. It was then part of the Russian empire as the Grand Duchy of Finland, an autonomous area. In 1917 it became independent, not without a civil war. During WWII, it fought on the side of Germany and was defeated by the USSR 1944; which cost them territorial losses.
French Guinea
Prior to 1882, the coastal portions of French Guinea were part of the French colony of Senegal. The colony of French Guinea were established in 1891.
French Soudan
A French territory called Upper Senegal in 1880. In 1890 it was renamed French Soudan territory. Further political shifts were made in 1899, 1902 and 1904. In 1920 it again became the Soudan with areas returned to this colonial entity.
Georgia
By 1800 most of Georgia was incorporated into the Russian Empire. Russia absorbed the rest of Georgia from 1805 to 1859. Declaring independence in 1918 from the Bolsheviks, they were protected by Great Britain from 1918 to 1920. In 1921 the red army retook Georgia and made it part of the USSR.
Germany
In the 18th Century; the Holy Roman Empire consisted of 1,800 principalities. After 1814, the German Confederation was composed of 39 sovereign states. 1871 was the year that the German Empire was begun, but it excluded the Austrian. After Germany lost WWI, it was declared a Republic; parts of its territory was occupied by the winning alliance and Danzig became a free city. Nazism took partial control in 1933 and complete control in 1934. The years 1935 to 1938 Germany reestablished control over the lost territories (except Danzig), incorporated Austria and Czechoslovakia into their country. In 1939 their attack on Poland began WWII.
Gibraltar
A British Overseas Territory since 1704; when it was taken from Spain.
Gold Coast
In the 1820s it was controlled by the British African Company of Merchants. 1874 they were a British colony. Other areas became incorporated into the Gold Coast; as administrative changes were made in the following years.
Greece
A modern Greek nation was recognized in 1830; with territory that was freed from Ottoman oppression and control. In 1881 further parts of Greece were brought into the new nation. Crete became part of Greece in 1913.
Guatemala
Freed from Spain in 1821, they became part of a the United Provences of Central America. In a civil war, they broke away and became an independent nation in by 1840.

 

Haiti
In 1697 a section of the Island of Hispaniola became a French colony. In 1804 they freed themselves from French rule. The United States occupied the country from 1915 to 1934.
Hawaii
From 1810 until 1893 Hawaii was the independent Kingdom of Hawaii. The overthrowing of the monarchy took place in 1894. In 1898 it became a territory of the United States.
Holland
From 1806 to 1810 they were a vassal state of France ruled by Napoleon's brother. Later in 1813 they became the United Kingdom of the Netherlands. 1830 Belgium broke away to become an independent nation.
Honduras
A colony of Spain until 1821; part of the First Mexican Empire until l823. From 1823 to 1837 it was incorporated into the United Provinces of Central America. By 1838 it was an independent republic.
Hong Kong
Hong Kong became part of the British Empire in 1842. Additional areas were added, Kowloon in 1860 and the New Territories in 1898. It was a city-state that was run on a laissez faire economic model, which created amazingly prosperity for the ever growing population of immigrants from China.
Hungary
By 1718 the Kingdom of Hungary was freed of Ottoman rule. They were then controlled and part of the Hapsburg Empire. In 1867 the dual monarchy of Austrian-Hungary was created. After WWI the Republic of Hungary was formed. In 1920 they lost 71% of their territory. 1941 Hungary joined the Axis powers in WWII and gained additional territory.
Iceland
From 1523 it was a Danish-Norwegian dependency. In 1814 they became soley a Danish dependency. 1918 to 1943 the became a full sovereign state with a union with Denmark. In 1944 the became an independent republic.
India
The modern age began in 1848 with the changes made Governor General of the (British) East Indian Company. In 1858 the British government directly ruled India. 1886 upper Burma was added to British India.
Iraq
Ruled by the Ottoman empire, until British troops captured it in 1917 during WWI. In 1920 it was a League of Nations mandate, under British control. It was called State of Iraq. Britain granted independence in 1932. During WWII in 1941 Britain again took control of the country.

Iran

Iran, known as Persia until 1935, is a country that was generally formed as a nation by 550, but it was in 1906 that it introduced the parliamentary rule.
Republic of Ireland
In 1801, the Kingdom of Ireland and the Kingdom of Great Britain became the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. In 1921 except for the Northern Counties, Ireland became an independent country.
Italy
By 1861 most of Italy was a unified nation freeing itself from foreign powers and incorporating the smaller independent Italian states. It was now a constitutional monarchy. In 1922 Mussolini's march on Rome ushered in a fascist state. In 1935 there was the invasion of Ethiopia and in 1939 they occupied Albania. They were part of the Axis powers in WWII. 1943 found Italy surrendering to the Allies.
Ivory Coast
By 1880 France was in control of this West African area. In 1893 the Ivory Coast became a French colony.

 

Jamaica
Up to 1655 it was part of the Spanish Colonial Empire. From 1655 Jamaica became a British colony.
Japan
An independent nation, it was opened up to world in 1854. The Russian-Japanese War of 1904 to 1905 began the empire building of Japan when they acquired Taiwan, Korea and southern half of Sakhalin Island. In 1931 they expanded their empire by taking over Manchuria. By 1937 they were invading other parts of China. Allied with the Axis powers they expanded across the Pacific ocean. Their defeat in WWII brought their empire to an end.
Kenya
In 1885 it was a German protectorate over coastal possessions of the Sultan of Zanzibar. The Imperial British East Africa company moved into the area in 1888. Germany relinquished its coastal holding to the British in 1890. It then became a British crown colony in 1920. The coastal strip previously held by the Germans was called the Protectorate of Kenya; leased from the Sultan of Zanzibar.
Korea
The Korean empire was proclaimed in 1897. The Japanese empire took over Korea in 1910 and made it part of the Japanese Empire. They controlled it, until the end of WWII.
Latvia
Part of the Russian Empire from 1710 to 1910. A provisional government was declared in 1918. By 1919 the country was politically divided into three parts. In 1920 a constitution was created and in 1922 it was approved. Latvia was now an independent nation. In 1940 the USSR marched into the country and made it a Soviet satellite.

Lebanon

Lebanon has been a Christian country starting from the late Roman Empire. With the deterioration of the Byzantine Empire it was ruled by Muslims. Then in 1920 France defeated the Arabs and ruled the country. French created the Lebanese Republic in 1926, and in 1946 it became fully independent.
Lybia
Ottoman rule lasted until 1912; when Italy created a colonial state. It ruled the country until 1943, when the allies were victorious over the Axis powers.
Principality of Lichtenshtein
By 1806 it was an independent principality with no obligations to other nations. In 1815 – 1866 it was a member of the German Confederation presided over by Emperor of Austria. From 1867 it was independent, but associated with Austria.
Lithuania
Lithuania and Poland were associated in a two state union, until about 1795 when the Russian Empire took over Lithuania. In 1918 Lithuania declared its independence from Russia. By 1944 the USSR troops took over Lithuania and made it a satellite of the Soviets.
Grand Duchy of Luxembourg
In 1815 Luxembourg became a Grand Duchy as part of the German Confederation. It was ruled as a province of the Netherlands. 1839 Luxembourg became an independent nation. Between 1830 and 1839 they lost half their territory to Belgium. Until 1890 The King of the Netherlands was the Head of State for Luxembourg. From 1940 to 1944 it was occupied by the Nazis.

 

Macau

Macau was an area controlled by Portugal from about 1842. It was steeped in a unique Chinese-Portuguese culture. It was a self-contained City-state engaged in international trade.
Malaysia
Penang, Malacca and Singapore made up the Straits Settlement, which were a Crown Colony of the British government.
Malta
In 1814 Malta became part of the British Empire.
Manchuria
By 1644 China gained control over this area. In 1858 and 1860 Russia incorporated parts of Manchuria into its empire. After the Russian-Japanese war; Japan took over Russian interests in the area. In 1931 Japan sized all of Manchuria and made it a puppet state called it Manchukuo. In 1946 the area was returned to China.
Mauritania
In 1901 France began the conquest of Mauritania and by 1920 it was made part of French West Africa.
Mexico
In 1821 Mexico was freed from the Spanish Empire. In later years, parts of Mexico were lost to Central American countries, while additional territories were later lost to the United States.
Morocco
By 1906 France had political control of the country. In 1912 the French established a protectorate over Morocco.
Mozambique
A Portuguese colony that developed from the 1530s. It became part of Portuguese East Africa.

 

Nassau Bahamas
In 1718 the Bahamas were made a British crown colony.
Suriname
There were a number of Dutch colonies in the Guiana’s of South America in the 19th century. With the British takeover of other Guianas in 1831; the Dutch were left with the colony of Suriname.
Netherlands West Indies
Part of the Netherlands since the 17th century. They were ruled as colonies.
New Zeland
Before 1841, it was part of the British colony of New South Wales. After that it became the British Colony of New Zealand.
Nicaragua
Spanish colonial rule ended in 1821. Nicaragua became part of the First Mexican Empire. As this was dissolved in 1823; they joined the United Provinces of Central America. Finally, in 1838 they became an independent republic.
Niger
In 1922 it became a French colony. French subjugation began in about 1899.
Northern Ireland
In 1920 it was split off from new nation of Ireland and became a self-governing entity within the United Kingdom.
Norway
In 1814 Denmark ceded Norway to the King of Sweden. There was a peaceful separation from Sweden in 1905.

 

Palestine
In 1922 the British received the mandate to rule the geographic area called Palestine, which had been under Ottoman tyranny. It became the Sate of Israel in 1948.
Panama
Panama was part of Spanish colonial Columbia; together they became independent in 1822. In 1903 Panama became an independent constitutional democracy. In 1914 the Panama Canal was completed by the United States. The United States had been given special rights to the area of the canal.
Penang
1796 marked the beginning of British rule in Penang. In 1805 it was incorporated into the British India, as an independent province. Singapore and Malacca were incorporated with Penang in 1826; as part of the Straits Settlements. Later in 1867 the Straits Settlements were under direct British rule as a Crown colony. During WWII, the Japanese empire invaded and conquered Penang in 1941 and were expelled in 1945.
Peru
An independent Peru emerged from the Spanish Empire in 1821. In 1837, the Peru-Bolivian Confederation was created but, it was dissolved in 1839. A war with Chili in 1879 caused territorial loss.
Poland
The Kingdom of Poland in 1795 was partitioned among the Russian Empire, the Kingdom of Prussia and the Austrian empire. With the fall of Russia in the 1917 revolution, Poland regained its independence in 1918. Invaded by Germany in 1939, which was the start of WWII; it was divided up between Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union. At the end of WWII with the Soviets occupying Poland they turned it into a Soviet satellite.
Puerto Rico
Part of the Spanish empire until 1898. The United States took over the island in the Spanish-American war. In 1917 they were given United States citizenship.
Rhodes
An Ottoman Empire possession until 1912. Italy took over the island in a victorious war against the Ottomans. It remained an Italian possession, until the end of WWII.
Romania
Kingdom of Romania became independent of the Ottoman Empire in 1877. Additional territory was united with Romania after WWI. The country sided were part of the Axis powers from 1941 to 1944. In 1944 they joined the Allies, but by the end of the war the Soviet Union occupied the Country.
Russia
In 1547 the first Czar of Russia was crowned. The Russian empire stretched across the length and breath of Europe and Asia. The Russian revolution of 1917 ended the reign of the Czars.

 

San Marino
By 1671 it was an independent nation.
Scotland
It was an independent state until 1707. In 1707 it entered into a political union with England; Kingdom of Great Britain.
Senegal
By 1885 a French colony that became part of French West Africa.

Shanghai

In 1842 the small fishing village of Shanghai, became a concession of the British Empire; and later expanded into the International settlement of several nations and the French concession; which surrounded the original Chinese walled city. Here both Foreigners and Chinese made vast fortunes. By the 1930s, this international city became the greatest trading port in the far East. It was both extraordinary modern and excessively decadent. The residents of all races called themselves Shanghai landers. The end came when the communist marched into Shanghai in 1948.
Siam Thailand
An independent nation of Buddhist pagodas and the King of Siam.
Singapore
A Crown Colony of the British government. Part of the Straits Settlement; made a crown colony in 1867. It's excellent port is the key to being a great trading nation.
South Africa
The Cape colony was annexed by Great Britain in 1806. The Dutch Boers left the colony in 1830 to find new areas to settle away from British control. The British later fought two wars with the Boers; 1880-1881 and 1899 – 1902. In 1910 the Union of South Africa was created with the Cape colony and additional areas. They were given their independence in 1931.
Southern Rhodesia
In 1889 the British South African Company was given the charger to rule areas from the Limpopo to Lake Tanganyika as a protectorate. The term “Southern Rhodesia was officially used 1898. Self government started in 1923.
Spain
French troops were ousted from Spain in 1814, but before expulsion of the French the Spanish people had drawn up a modern constitution in 1812. In spite of this a king was put on the throne in 1814. By 1898 the Spanish empire was almost completely lost. The 1900s brought new colonies to Spain. 1936 to 1939 the country was torn apart by civil war.
Spanish Morocco
A Spanish protectorate was established in 1912.
Sudan
In 1899 Sudan was run by a governor-general appointed by Egypt with the consent of the British. The administration was basically as a British colony. Ottoman rule formally ended in 1914. From 1924 on the country was administered as two separate areas; north Sudan and south Sudan.
Sweden
By the 1800s Sweden's empire was gone; as the absolute monarchy ended in about 1809. The last gasp of empire was the ceding of Norway to Sweden in 1814. By 1889 Sweden was becoming a parliamentary democracy. In 1905 Norway became an independent nation. Sweden was neutral during WWI and WWII.
Switzerland
In 1803 it was a confederation of 19 cantons. In 1847 a constitution was drawn up based on the Constitution of the United States. By 1850 they were a neutral country and during WWI and WWII they remained neutral.
Syria
Before WWI it was part of the Ottoman empire. France controlled the area until 1920 as a League of Nations mandate. In 1920 there were a few months of self-government. French rule lasted until 1946.

 

Togo
In 1884 it became a German protectorate; the German colony of Togoland. After WWI it was divided into two League of Nations mandates administered by France and Great Britain.
Trinidad
Part of the Spanish empire until 1797. Trinidad was ceded to Great Britain in 1802. Trinidad and Tobago became a single crown colony in 1889.
Tunesia
The Ottoman Empire ruled from 1534 to 1881. In 1881 the French established a protectorate.
Turkey
The end of Ottoman rule took place in Turkey in 1923. It became a constitutional republic.
Uganda
In 1888 Great Britain gave the charter for Uganda to the British East African Company. From 1894 G.B. Ruled it as as a protectorate.

Ukraine

Ukraine is an area of deep historic roots; divided and ruled by a multitude of nations; a people that worshiped in many religions. In the 19th century, Ukrainian nationalism began to unite the people into one nation and one culture.
United States of America
In 1776 the United States of American declared itself independent from the colonial government of Great Britain. Soon after Great Britain's defeat it became a democratic government, believing in the rights of its citizens to dictate what powers the Federal government is to be allowed. The States retained all powers except those designated in the Constitution that are given to the Federal government. Western expansion continued until 1959, when the territory of Hawaii became the 50th State.
Uruguay
In 1811 they defeated and freed themselves from Spanish colonial rule. Up to 1868 the country was attacked in numerous battles with their neighbors.
USSR
A thousand years of Russian rulers and Czars were ended by the Russian Revolution of 1917 and the Soviet Sate emerged. A civil war raged from 1918 to 1922 and the communists were victorious gaining back most of the previous Russian territories. Before WWII the pact with Nazi Germany helped them reclaim half Poland. In 1941 the Nazis turned on the Soviets and invaded. By 1945 as part of the allies war efforts and with the Allies victory over the Nazis, they took control of Eastern Europe.

 

Venezuaela
1811 and 1813 were the first attempts of independence from Spanish colonial rule. Independance was achieved in 1823 and Venezuela became part of Gran Columbia. In 1830 they broke away and became an independent nation.
Virgin Islands of the United States
Danish West Indies until 1916, when they were sold to the United States. They became a Territory of the United States. They are a group of islands in the Caribbean.
Yugoslavia
Previous to 1918 this area was ruled by dynasties, Ottomans and Austria-Hungary with borders that ebbed and flowed through wars and independent movements. After WWI in 1918 the union of the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes became a nation. In 1929 the official name became Yugoslavia. In 1941 the Axis powers invaded the country.
Zanzibar
In 1890 Zanzibar became a protectorate of Great Britain. From 1913 British governors (residents) ruled the country.

Book 2 Bon Voyage

Click on the image to learn more
  • Bon Voyage Cards (Clickable)
  • Bon Voyage Cards (Clickable)
    When you leave on a vacation or on a business trip, your family and co-workers would want to wish you a good journey by giving you a “bon voyage card.” From amusing comments to serious thoughts to small drawings: one could embellish these cards in many ways.
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  • Trans Siberian Railroad
  • Trans Siberian Railroad
    Seven time zones, almost 6,000 miles & eight days of travel define the journey on the Trans-Siberian Railroad that crosses the sprawling Russian land. It was built from 1891 to 1916, across areas of extremely low temperatures and permafrost.
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  • Thomas Cook (Clickable)
  • Thomas Cook (Clickable)
    Thomas Cook started the concept of mass travel for the public with the first excursion in 1841 when he took 540 temperance compatriots from Leicester railroad station to a rally in Loughborough. It was an 11-mile journey that brought economic travel to the general public. Along with the ever-expanding rail lines in Europe, the original concept of Grand Tour for the pleasure and education of the rich was coming to an end. This first tour was the inspiration of the Thomas Cook travel agency.
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  • American Express
  • American Express
    The premier American travel agency that in 1882 introduced the money order & in 1891 the traveler’s check. In the 1920s & 1930s their office on Rue Scribe in Paris was legendary for the services that it provided.
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  • Pan American Airways
  • Pan American Airways
    Pan American Airlines (Pan Am) Founded in 1921, Pan American World Airlines reached one of its greatest pinnacles of achievement in 1935 when it started scheduled trans-Pacific flights. The epitome of private enterprise and capitalism; Pan Am became known as the “unofficial overseas airlines of the United States.”
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  • Orient Express
  • Orient Express
    The route of intrigue, glamor & mystery that started in 1883 from the Paris railroad station Gare de l’Est via Munich, Vienna & Budapest to Constantinople. It later evolved into 3 different routes. The Orient Express was in reality a Wagons-lits service of fine railroad cars on a designated route.
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  • Wagons Lits
  • Wagons Lits
    Starting in 1872 wagons-lits made it possible for railroad companies to provide elite passengers with luxury sleeping cars and dining cars combined with fine service. A wagon-lit conjures up the romance of the rails with trains that used these fine rail cars; examples include the Orient Express, Nord Express & Train Bleu.
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  • Czechoslovak Legion in Russia, 1918 to 1920 (Clickable)
  • Czechoslovak Legion in Russia, 1918 to 1920 (Clickable)
    Czechoslovak Legion in Russia, 1918 to 1920 The Czechoslovak (a term created after WWI) troops fighting with the Russians in WWI began an evacuation of the country in 1918. Due to the usual paranoia and brutality of Lenin, Trotsky, and their fellow communists during the Russian Civil War the evacuation was halted. Thus the Czechoslovak Legion found itself fighting the Bolsheviks, mostly along the trans-Siberian railroad line for two years, until an agreement was reached with the Soviet government finally allowing the Legion to evacuate the Soviet Union.
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  • Western Union (Clickable)
  • Western Union (Clickable)
    From 1861, when the transcontinental telegraph line was completed, Western Union became the company that carried messages across the United States. By 1871 the company was doing the same for money transfers. In 1933 one could open the front door to find the Western Union messenger serenading the recipient with a singing telegram.
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  • Kodak (Clickable)
  • Kodak (CLickable)
    The name Kodak became a generic name for the cameras that tourists would carry with them; this camera for the masses was developed in 1888. By 1889 Kodak set the standard for the modern camera. Earlier in 1885 Kodak developed modern photographic film. A pocket camera was developed in 1895.
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  • World War I
  • World War I
    The first experience of total war; a global conflict that lasted from July 28, 1914 to the 11th hour of 11th day of the 11th month, 1918. History’s greatest unintentional event with unimaginable consequences and with repercussions that continue to reverberate into the present.
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  • Travel Agencies (Clickable)
  • Travel Agencies (Clickable)
    Assisting the traveler with everything from reservations for transportation and hotels to supplying brochures & information. Further the agent would design personal vacations and business trips to booking cruises and group tours.

 

 

 

 

 

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